David Corbett writes in his book The Art of Character that George Vaillant, once a researcher at Harvard, drew on the research of Anna Freud and adapted a hierarchy of ways we have to adapt to pain, stress, loss, conflict, disappointment, uncertainty and betrayal.
What I have listed as the title or headline of this post are what Vaillant labeled the mature adaptations. These can not only be applied to character development, but to our development. After all, they are listed as nonfiction, not fiction.
Other than humor, to me they all sounded unhealthy. Had you given me a multiple choice or true/false test, I would have had all incorrect answers. Not until I read, the “less mature”options did I begin to see the above as good choices.
The other options were characterized as psychotic, immature, and neurotic. They included paranoia, passive aggressive, and intellectualization. Once I get off the couch, oh what characters I will produce!